Diastolic Dysfunction in Patients With HIV, Associations With Cardiac Function

Diastolic dysfunction was associated with multiple alterations in cardiac structure and function in a contemporary HIV-positive population receiving antiretroviral therapy, according to results published in the Journal of Cardiac Failure. A multicenter, cross-sectional, case-control study of people with HIV who were receiving treatment and demonstrated viral suppression was conducted. There were 94 patients with diastolic dysfunction and 101 patients without diastolic dysfunction. All patients had ejection fraction >50%, no significant valvular disease, and no history of coronary revascularization or persistent atrial fibrillation. The groups were similar in CD4 cell count,…

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New Formulation of Tesamorelin Available for HIV Patients With Lipodystrophy

Theratechnologies announced the availability of Egrifta SV, a new single-vial formulation of tesamorelin for injection. Egrifta SV is indicated for the reduction of excess abdominal fat in HIV-infected adult patients with lipodystrophy. It is supplied as a lyophilized powder in a 2mg single-dose vial with diluent and can be stored at room temperature. The more concentrated formulation allows for a smaller volume of administration (0.35mL). Egrifta SV and the original version, Egrifta, have differences in the dosage, the number of vials required to prepare a dose, reconstitution instructions, and storage…

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Are Screen-Out Rates the Reason for Women Being Underrepresented in HIV Trials?

In a study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, researchers hypothesized that the underrepresentation of women in HIV intervention trials in the United States may be a result of higher clinical trial screen-out rates in women compared with men. Although they found that screen-out rates did not differ by sex, researchers highlighted that the results underscored the need to recruit more women to HIV trials in order to bridge the knowledge gap between women and men. Because sex and gender can have a significant effect on disease course and response to…

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Ethnic Disparities in Preexposure Prophylaxis Among Men Having Sex With Men

According to the United States Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly, preliminary data from 2017 show that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 67% of new diagnoses of HIV infections. In addition, MSM who inject drugs accounted for another 3% of new infections, and African American/black and Hispanic/Latino MSM were disproportionately affected. To meet the goal of a 90% reduction in new infections in 10 years, the Ending the HIV Epidemic national initiative is including efforts to increase pre-exposure…

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Descovy for PrEP Continues to Be Noninferior to Truvada, According to 96 Week Data

Findings from the 96-week DISCOVER trial demonstrated the continued noninferiority of Descovy (emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide; Gilead) to Truvada (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate; Gilead) for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and statistically significant differences over Truvada for pre-specified secondary end points. In the phase 3, randomized, double-blind trial, 5387 participants (men who have sex with men and transgender women at risk for sexually acquired HIV infection) were randomized 1:1 to receive either once-daily Descovy or Truvada (emtricitabine 200mg and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300mg tablets; Gilead). The primary end point of…

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Updated Labeling for Efavirenz-Containing Products Warns of Possible Late-Onset Neurotoxicity

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved updated labeling for all efavirenz-containing products (Sustiva, Atripla, Symfi, and Symfi Lo) with additions to the Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions: Postmarketing Experience sections. The Warnings and Precautions section has been updated to address the potential for late-onset neurotoxicity, including ataxia and encephalopathy with efavirenz treatment. Neurotoxicity may occur months to years after starting efavirenz therapy; some of these events have occurred in patients with CYP2B6 genetic polymorphisms. If patients present with signs and symptoms of neurotoxicity, healthcare professionals should evaluate…

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Syringe Exchange Program Has Positive Effect on HIV Diagnoses

HealthDay News — A syringe exchange program (SEP) has averted thousands of injection drug use (IDU)-associated HIV diagnoses over 10 years in Philadelphia and Baltimore, according to a study published in the Dec. 1 issue of the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Monica S. Ruiz, Ph.D., M.P.H., from the Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University in Washington, D.C., and colleagues used surveillance data from Philadelphia (1984 to 2015) and Baltimore (1985 to 2013) to measure the impact of policy change. The number of expected HIV…

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Dolutegravir-Based Therapy Is Noninferior to Continued PI-Based Therapy in HIV

The presence of M184V or other archived nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) resistance-associated mutations does not reduce the efficacy of dolutegravir-based therapy, which is noninferior to continued protease inhibitor (PI)-based therapy in HIV, according to study results published in the International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Current guidelines recommend that patients with HIV who experience virologic failure when receiving first-line non–NRTI-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) should start PI-based therapy to improve clinical outcomes. However, long-term use of PIs is associated with cardiovascular disease and several metabolic complications. The objective of this study…

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Interprofessional Collaboration Improves Linkage to HIV Testing, Primary Care

Results from a study published in AIDS Care support the efficacy of interprofessional collaboration in linking patients with HIV to care services. Specifically, psychosocial providers such as social workers, health educators, and outreach workers who collaborated with other clinicians provided more linkages to HIV testing and primary care than those who did not. Investigators abstracted baseline, 12-, and 24-month follow-up data from a 5-year longitudinal study. Providers from 36 agencies in New York City completed a 150-question survey that assessed HIV-related training, linkages to HIV testing services and primary care,…

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Increasing HIV Drug Resistance in Newly Diagnosed Infants

According to data published in BMC Infectious Diseases, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance has increased among newly diagnosed infants who live in a high HIV prevalence setting where maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage increased across years. Researchers conducted a sub-study of 3 nationally representative cross-sectional surveys in South Africa in 2010, 2011 to 2012, and 2012 to 2013 to address several questions surrounding mother to child transmission of HIV. One goal was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance among infants aged 4 to 8 weeks who tested positive…

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